Banyeres over time: struggles, sieges and inclusions austracistas bathtubs that suffered during the War of Succession. 2Part th

Juan Carlos Hernandez Teruel

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In continuation to the first part exhibited in last year's Party Program, it will be concluded, this time, with the fights, Austracist sieges and inclusions that Banyeres suffered during the War of Succession and that correspond to the days that happened with a specific date. We will continue with the events that occurred between the terms of Banyeres and Bocairent. For the next edition we will enter with those that occurred without a designated day, to which we will try to reveal its approximate moment. For this, we have had the collaborations mentioned in the previous edition.


In this first section we will end with the events that occurred in the day's siege 14 November 1706, Sunday, considered as the last austracist inclusion that Banyeres had to endure during said war. For it, we first expose a fragment of a letter that is among the written documents of Laureano Ballester, numbered by himself as 42, which was sent by the University of Bañeres to King Felipe V, in that with the request for privileges, comment how much is next:

“/(f. 68v) … Adding to the aversion to the bitterness of the Enemies against the Vniverfidad, that they formally phied her three times with Regulated Troops, and the number of them with more than three thousand and five hundred fighters, What faith made up of faithful Regiments, end the Paisanos, that ferian but of the thousand; those who left the place, they entered, they faked, and they burned most of it, but retiring the neighbors to the Caftillo, although demolished, and very old factory from Moors time, I defended him such a courageous defense with the few details they had, and stones that the land offered them, that coming dead, and wounded many of the Enemies forced them to raise the phytio, and withdraw faith. "

We also present what D. Francisco Berenguer Mora tells us in Bañeres and San Jorge about that day:

“/(P. 88) … For more than before the last site, the natives of the town seeing extremely distressed, They allowed as many as they wanted to go out in a published band to defend themselves more freely, there was no one, man, woman or child who would not rather lose his life than stop following the party of his king. In this last place, more than 4.000 mens, among which there were seven Regiments, formed by troops of the Archduke and Portuguese: they entered
the town and found that their neighbors, in view of more enemies, they had retired to the castle where they gathered their food and war supplies; and from him they made such a brave defense, what, having finished- /(P. 89) do the few ammunition they had locked up, They used the stones that the land offered them, and at the same time that those took away from the castle with their projectiles launched the helmets that it had, ours, having received from the allied peoples the help they implored on similar occasions, they put them on the run, not without having died 300 men and caught 20 prisoners; but before, they, seeing that their efforts were useless, they mistreated and disabled the one who went to ask the other peoples for help, which fell into his hands, they sacked the town, taking away, among other things, the flag of St. George, 3000 heads of sheep and goats and 113 major and minor horses; they burned more than thirty houses, leaving others half-burning and the papers, cars and privileges that were in the archive and those of the office of Laureano Ballester, Town clerk, trustee and clerk. "

As could be seen in the last edition, both in Count Mahony's account and in Laureano Ballester's letter No. 43, repeat the same defense mode when running out of ammo. Although this may seem somewhat fruitless, we believe, for what said count, that such events are of some credibility. We think that some stones of a certain size must have been thrown at the foot of the wall after the battlement, what would be the round pass, and those of smaller dimension could have been thrown by means of a slingshot. In the next edition, we will see how in the first siege of Alcoy, in which Brigadier Joseph de Chaves and Colonel Pedro Corbí intervene, the latter is wounded with a stone thrown by said weapon.

In regards to regiments, there was a restructuring in the Spanish army that appears in the Royal Ordinance of 28 September 1704. These reforms in European armies are gradual, It is those of France and England first and then those of the other European powers. That is why the Portuguese in 1707 they were still called thirds, in which each of them understood it between 500 Y 600 soldiers. Without exception and in accordance with the Portuguese decree of 26 July 1704, rose to 800 places all thirds paid.1 To this must be taken into account the possible withdrawals and desertions that may occur during the journeys. The Tercios that this time were, They were Antonio do Couto and Pedro José de Mello quartered in Bocairent, those of Luís Manuel de Camara and Count of Aveyras in Ontinyent, that of Antonio Carneiro de Sousa in Agres and that of Juan Manuel Noroña in Alcoy, being all of them Portuguese. In the memoirs of Colonel D. Antonio do Couto mentions those who come from other locations, so possibly that of Pedro J. Mello does not mention it when he found himself stationed with said colonel, just like the two horse companies. For the data collected to date, It is assumed that on the Saturday afternoon of the day 13 the mentioned Thirds were already in the vicinity of Bocairent, preparing to jointly start their march towards Banyeres around midnight. They traveled approximately two leagues along the then old road of Bocairent, to which they arrived at two in the morning of the day 14, getting the surprise effect.

As is already known, the Third of Colonel Antonio do Couto Castelo Branco, participated in the Battle of Almansa on the allied side, being imprisoned by the Bourbon troops after said battle. In the list of the Portuguese generals and officers who were imprisoned, sent by the Battle General of said army D. Juan Manuel de Noroña, and signed by the Royal War Commissioner of the Armies of His Majesty D. Pedro Dulevere, the 12 May 1707, the aforementioned Third was constituted in the following way: Antonio do Couto as Field Master; Manuel Gómez was the Sergeant Major. Also Manuel de Madureyra, Manuel Guatesma, Manuel Ruiz, Simón Moeyra and Simón de Moraiz were Captains, as well as Manuel Ferreira, Francisco Ruiz and Manuel Núñez were the Assistants or Sergeants, and Joseph de Fonseca, Antonio Lopez, Joseph de Faria, Juan Botelho and Juan de Trebejo the Alferez, were those who carried the flags.2 This military rank was stationed in Bocairente from the 14 October 1706, until the 4 April 1707, and those who must have participated in the siege of the then University of Banyeres del 14 November 1706.

As can be seen at the beginning of Francisco Berenguer's narration, Before the day 14 November was published side, but it does not refer to a specific day, to what we believe was published between the indicated date and the penultimate Austracist inclusion, which was due to the data collected so far, the day 8 the same month. Also with reference to said side, in writing no. 16 Laureano Ballester, we can find in the statement of Bautista Doménech, that argues how much follows:

“/(f. 18v) … Having published Bando that whoever wants to leave will do so, no man, woman or child who did not say that first he wanted to lose his life, to stop following the Party of their King;…”

From all that that day they could take, as has been observed, one was the flag, coming to be what local pride was. In copy no. 14 made by Laureano Ballester from a letter sent on 11 of January of 1708, by the then mayor and councilors of the University of Banyeres to Count Mahony, to request some requests, contains the following fragment:

“/(f. 16) … And a flag that is painted with the glorious Saint George that when they came to burn this Vniversity they took it to that Villa (Bocairente)…”

We assume that this flag would be flying somewhere outside the City Hall (Court House), maybe in a window or balcony of the building, so while the Bañerenses were besieged in the castle and their houses were burned, it was easy to access to remove the flag of said building, considering it as a trophy obtained in the confrontation. This flag may have subsequently disappeared even from Bocairent, since as we will see in the later edition, after the recovery of its square by the Bourbon troops
(21 August 1707), and the permanence in it by a company belonging to Banyeres, it was not recovered, requesting it as it has been appreciated several months later.

The so-called Casa Corte has its existence documented at least since 1694 in the current "carrer Mayor", although in Valencian it was called "Sala del comú" or "Sala de la vila", describing its location as follows: “A house located in this town on Calle Mayor that confronts on one side with the house of Juan Francés and on the other with the house of Antonio and Miguel Mollá, the street in the middle and from the back with Calle Nueva ”.3 Due to the data presented, We believe that it would be located at the height of number 11 of the current Calle Mayor. It was also located in that place, possibly until with the new construction of the parish temple, blessed the 25 from December to 1752, outside the current Plaza Mayor, culminating in the construction of the also new Town Hall, since there is a lease deed of 1784 in which there is already evidence that it was there.4

After the war operations in Banyeres that day 14 November and with Xixona, the 20 of the same month by the garrison of Alcoy, They made many wounded and sick people come to this town and they were treated in the small hospital located on Calle Mayor.. The health situation was compromised by the difficulty of doctors to attend to the high number of patients, the capacity of said hospital being insufficient, to which the hermitage of San Mauro located outside the walls was enabled for this purpose, in Raval Nou.5 But neither medical nor spiritual assistance was enough for the number of hospitalized, as you can see in the Tip of the day 28 from December to 1706; "More Tips" (BUT). The "Jury in Chief", Jose Samper, stated in the Council quoted as follows:

"... that Mr.. General (Sergeant Major D. Juan Manuel Noroña) had dispatched to Valencia to prevent marfegues and that the patients who were in the hospital were in great danger of dying without confession and sacraments and that these two things needed immediate remedy and some expenses were offered and having voted for all the only fingers have determined that all expenses are offered, what is spent for the consolation of the malalts and what is done to collect from Mr.. rector of the parish of the present town who touches this administration to him that gives the full assistance in the administration of the sacraments and to confess to the patients of the hospital. ” 6

That same day (14 of November), Infantry Captain D appeared in Banyeres. Raimundo Casamayor. This is how we can confirm it by the certification of said captain, in the copy made by Laureano Ballester in his letter no. 20, in which he argued so:

“/(f. 23) ... Commander status since the day 14 from November of the year One thousand seven hundred and six until the eleventh day of February of One thousand seven hundred and eight ... "

In the commented letter No. 42 Laureano Ballester, we also find a fragment with repercussion to the day in question, that reveals to us how much is next:

“/(f. 69) Autrophy, that said ugly Vniverfidad acquitted of the obligation to pay each vn year to the Villa de Bocayrente twelve hundred and ten pounds of that currency, than the ref / f. 69v) put by reason of the feparacion, in confidence that said Villa has been the one that has most persistently caused the greatest damage to the Vniverfidad, because faith offered to give two thousand pounds to the Cape of Enemies, so that with you people I would end up with said Vniverfidad, and the burner, as they executed it in 14 November 1706. "

Because we have been able to see so far and with what we will be exposing other aspects, It is found that the Austracist troops wanted to get the Plaza de Banyeres as such, but for Bocairente it was an opportunity given to try to devastate and annihilate the population of the city. A feeling produced by the separation of the term that was achieved by the latter in the year 1628. With this separation, Banyeres did not pretend more than to determine what several populations had previously achieved by dismembering another, as it happened with Algemesí: 1574; Carcaixent: 1576; Callosa: 1579; Mutxamel: 1580; Guadassuar: 1581; l’Olleria, La Iesa and Almoradí: 1583; Agullent; 1585; and San Joan-Benimagrel: 1593; as also and after Banyeres Afafara got it: 1632, achieving their own local autonomy, without the submission on which previously depended.

To end this section, we must comment that by means of two fragments of text by Laureano Ballester, already mentioned in the previous edition, with respect to this last siege that Banyeres suffered, he had to ask for help from the Hoya de Castalla, to which Colonel Pedro Corbí himself could not come because he also had to go to Jijona, yes they sent a relief from La Hoya, but it was not like that with the help of the Villa de Biar. Although this town belonged to the Union de las Villas de la Hoya de Castalla, in august 1706 They were not clear about continuing to be supporters of Felipe V. This is clear from a letter sent to the town of Alcoy, that comes out in the council held in said town on the day 16 August of that year (BUT), in which it says as follows:

“… Having proposed by said Jury in Chief that the town of Biar ab carta de 13 of the currents writes to the present town that by the proximity that they have to the Kingdom of Castile and in particular to the city of Billena and to fear some ruin to declare itself in the outside being so of its will and the secret they are on the part of our king. However, they would consider that the present town will protect the cattle and cavalry in this term and have voted no dissenting cloister and will determine if the proposal is done. ” 7


Regarding the second section dedicated to the possible confrontations that could take place in the municipality of Banyeres bordering on Bocairent, we can find among the events that occurred on the days with the indicated date, a couple of concrete facts in the memoirs narrated by Colonel Antonio do Couto. Regarding these facts, it must be indicated that the text fragments that are exposed are translated verbatim from the Portuguese of the time. One happened days after the inclusion already commented on, dated 9 October. Such must have been the continuous harassment of the population of Banyeres by the Australian troops occupying the Plaza de Bocairent, that after said inclusion suffered and repulsed by Pedro Corbí's horse militias, the Bourbon troops decided to try to take the Plaza de Bocairent. Previously, at the beginning of the same year, these troops recovered the Ontinyent square. They later lost it, so they must have tried again. But this time taking the Plaza de Bocairent first. In Antonio do Couto's comments he related it:

“/(P.: 600) … The enemies made another detachment of 12.000 men we had information about who came to take Bocayrente, if we took it, we could not maintain the barracks in the Kingdom of Valencia. They sent me with my Tercio (he was in Onteniente) and the Master Headquarters Mr. Carli for Bocayrente on the fourteenth day, (October) in a hurry for the risk I had, Carli who understood it withdrew from the march, and he left me; I continued, and I got into the square in view of the enemy, who tried the same; say that they will leave, I was with the weapons to retain them, and fortified the best I could with palisades, using the help of the terrain. The enemies with the information that the Villa was occupied continued the march towards the Kingdom of Murcia ... "

The detachment referred to by Couto, belonged to the Franco-Spanish army, whose operations concluded that year with the conquest of Cartagena on 22 of November, to which those of Orihuela had preceded (18-10) and Elche (21-10).8 In it was the Bishop of Cartagena and Viceroy of Murcia Luís A. Belluga as captain general of Murcia and Valencia, along with Marshal Duke of Berwick. The contingent of Bourbon forces that may have participated, belonging to the detachment referred to by said Portuguese colonel and to the dates that he himself narrates, he should have asked them, probably one more time, surrender, to what Bocairent, as it is observed, gave his refusal. In the Distribution of various contributions corresponding to the year 1707 of Bocairent (WITH), a relationship of 103 names that make up the "Memory of those who become in the Distribution of the Three hundred and seventy-four doubloons that for disobedience this Villa gave to the Bishop of Cartagena." This was imposed as punishment for the uprising against Felipe V, who we will comment on in the next chapter. After leaving Bocairent these Bourbon forces, they had to pass through the then road to Villena passing through Beneixama. On his way through the municipality of Banyeres and in view of his castle, they would see the flag of the King's arms flying on the terrace of the Torre del Homenaje. To the being Banyeres partisan of Felipe V., as we can see in the written number 6 Laureano Ballester:

“/(f. 4v) … The town of Banieres in the Reyno de Valencia, It has always been kept under the life ovedience of its legitimate King and Sr without ever loaning it to another amid the setbacks suffered by repeated sites and threats from neighboring Rebel places,…”.

This flag was constituted by 2.5 m. sideways, represented on a white background with the cross of Saint Andrew in red, also called "Cross of Burgundy", in which the trunks that form the cross appear with their knots in the places where the branches were cut. In such a way that these two flags - that of San Jorge and that of San Andrés - would be the ones that would fly in Banyeres during the War of Succession.

The other event that occurred corresponds to the continuous alarms and shocks that Antonio do Couto comments.

After the inclusion that occurred in the aforementioned day 8 November in which houses were burned, among them that of Pere Ballester (We pointed out in the previous edition that some books were spared by taking them out of the house), it could probably have been one of the inclusions that the town of Banyeres could repel., as Miñana tells us:

“/(L. II-32) ... the defenders of the fortress rejected them that sometimes only they, others with the help of a platoon of the King's cavalry… ”Of that inclusion the news must have reached Colonel Pedro Corbí, in such a way that if the next day he traveled the old road to Bocairent and did not find anyone, If that, Conversely, two days later (10 of November), was able to intercept several Portuguese infantry soldiers from the third of Colonel Antonio do Couto, nestled in the term of Bocairent, of which he narrates us in his memoirs as follows:

“/(P. 605) … Among those it was the 10th of November of the same year of one thousand seven hundred and six. The enemies brought three hundred horses and two hundred countrymen with
Miqueletes de a pie. I had three hundred Infants in the field, and sixteen horses, but divided into different parts. Coming the shock with the occasion of me going up to some heights with about eighty men; I ran into an ambush of three enemy squads, they started to load me, and wanting to withdraw, they carried me in a way that they wounded, they killed and arrested some; I was in the back of people on horseback with sword in hand, I told people to stop, that we lost our comrades that or free them, or we got lost with them; people did not stop, I repeated the second time, to the third I told them, high francs! Making then high, and coming back for the enemies, next to some ravines, that helped me a lot, and I got a better place, making face to him with the sword in the hand forming, and in some cases the fight dragged on; so much so that I started to form platoons; killing enemies then an officer, getting him the horse, and two more from others. And more than forty were injured. My Sergeant Major Manuel Gómez Barbosa arrived with a few Infantry, with which we charge him making him a lot of fire; killing and wounding them forty, and eight horses, I lost forty between dead and wounded, being twelve dead, but remaining lord of the field. The enemies withdrew; the next day we went to remove the dead with Battle Sergeant Major D. Juan Manuel de Noroña, who had come to see the square (Bocairente); The enemies came to the same effect, but they retired, and we withdraw ours. There was a soldier of mine with a cut, that they gave him in the forehead, taking his head all that had ruined hair, leaving face on body only; and another had another cut on the shoulder that cut him in two parts, so that it reached his waist, that his guts fell from the blow. "

In all probability, The commented actions are those referred to in a fragment found in the letter nº43 of Laureano Ballester:

“/(f. 73v) … And continuing the annoyances that the enemies that lived in bocairente did to Banieres, among others, Dn Pedro Corbi came in a horse regiment.; And pass it by finding a company of Portuguese or infantry regiment, they destroyed it completely.

Occasion for which the cabo dellos was injured together with those who lived in Alcoy, Cosentaine, lieutenant, albayda and Bocayrente i others i to say goodbye to what happened in the country as soon as possible in the day 14 the Nº. (November) from 1706 ... "

In writing no. 43, we find what's next:

“/ (f. 75) …Mr. Dn. Pedro Corbí, who also assisted him with the cavalleria, had this town the company to els terrers de Bocairente ... "It is a fragment of the siege of Bocairent by the Bourbon troops between the 15 Y 21 August 1707. –We will comment on it in the next edition but now we mention it for commenting on the place where Pedro Corbí arrived with his “corerias” (Written Laureano Ballester nº 43, f. 74v)-. Said place, as we have been able to observe, is called "The Terriers". This site is located in the municipality of Bocairent, in the last foothills west of the Sierra Mariola, place easily accessible from the old road to Bocairent. Due to its orography, we intuit that it is the place described by the aforementioned Portuguese colonel (field – some high – ravines) and in which he had the confrontation with Pedro Corbi.

As a consequence of these events and as mentioned by Laureano Ballester, the Portuguese Tercios organized the retaliatory actions that took place on the aforementioned day. 14 the same month. It must have been suggested when Battle Sergeant Major D. Juan Manuel de Noroña visited Bocairent (11 of November), because in the document of the General Meeting held on the 12 May 1707 (BUT), you can read what follows:

“… That Juan Pascual and Joseph Coderch were surgeons for having attended the healing of the Portuguese soldiers who brought wounded from the University of Bañeres when they besieged it by order of General Don Juan Manuel de Noroña in satisfaction of his work ultra of the two pounds that have been given to each hu. ” 9

To be continue…


.- 1 “Battles of Portugal – Conquest of Madrid 1706 ". Joâo Vieira Borges. Portugal Military: P.:31.

.- 2 "Brief Relationship of Happy Victory, who have obtained the arms of his Majesty,… ”Valencian Library; Signature: XVIII/2721 – P. 11.

.-3 "Judgment of 25 October 1382 ". José Luis Vañó Pont.
Journal of Parties Fair of Santa Maria Magdalena de Mariola, 2007.

.-4 “The Streets of Banyeres de Mariola” – The old Town Hall; P.: 255.
FCO. Javier Mira Calatayud. M. I. City of Banyeres de Mariola, 1999.

.- 5 "Selected works on Alcoy". Rogelio Sanchis Llorens. Tomo I; P. 325-326.

.- 6 Ibid, P. 326.

.- 7 Ibid, P. 406.

.- 8 “Almansa, 1707: The Lises Crown ". Juan L. Martin Sanchez. Researching & Dragon nº 5. Madrid, February 1998. P. 73.

.- 9 "Selected works on Alcoy". Rogelio Sanchis Llorens. Tomo I; P. 411.


.- Taking of the town of Lille in October 1708. 19th century engraving by Paul Lehugeur. Despite the arduous defense of the French troops, the square ended up in the hands of the austracist army after several months of siege. With this illustration you can imagine the tragic confrontation that occurred in Banyeres on the day 14 November 1706, in which the Austracists were able to jump trenches and penetrate closed streets (barricades), fighting hand to hand, unlike they couldn't how to open the castle doors, last bastion of the then University, what said square was not achieved by the invader, Although defending it caused three hundred deaths that day.

.- Map showing a fragment of the term of Bocairent, in which he collects the size of his town at the beginning of the s. XVIII and, the location of "Els Terrers"; place which possibly Colonel D. Pedro Corbi, intercepted one of the groupings of Portuguese soldiers from the third of Colonel D. Antonio Couto.

.- Playing coins Felipe V, coined during the War of the Spanish Succession. (Particular collection). Superior: Eight reales silver coin of 1709, ceca Madrid. With the establishment of the Bourbon house in Spain, the monetary system consisted of three different types of currencies: the gold minted in the ounce of 8 shields; the silver worked in reals of eight or hard and copper to the maravedís, that replaced the trimmed and resealed change. Likewise, the royal portrait with a large wig appears for the first time in Oz., becoming enormously popular with the name of "peluconas", in the same way that the coins of the Habsburgs appeared in European mints. Center: Coin of four gold shields of 1707, Valencia mint. Obverse: PHILIP 5 to sing. Around the crowned coat of arms, surrounded by a circle. Reverso: King of Spain AtfO. Around a Jerusalem cross, Habsburg guy, within a border of 4 lobes and between both 4 (value) V (Czech) 4 (value) F (tester). Inferior: Copper Sixen Coin 1710, Valencia mint. On the occasion of the uprising of the Kingdom of Valencia, their Fueros were abolished and with them their currency, that although carrying his mint mark (V crowned), It is of the Castilian typology. The Valencian account system step (libra, salary and money) into Spanish (maravedí, royal and shield) it was not easy; For this reason, a transitory coin is issued that although it was the size of four and two maravedís, it was valued in money, in the case of six o'clock (6 money) and tresetas (3 money), wedging itself between 1709 Y 1713.

.- Reproduction of English flintlock pistol (century XVIII). It was carried mainly by the cavalry, being able to carry two arzonadas pieces in the horse saddle. The use of it by riders, it would be the "pass" of a squad riding at a trot, firing them before colliding in front of an enemy formation, regrouping and charging again with the sword. (Particular collection).

.- Map: The Kingdoms of Valencia and Murcia. Author: Nicolás de Fer. Illustrator: Charles Inselin. Editor: Edited by G. Danet; Paris. Broadcast date: 1709. Pertenece a la obra “Atlas or Collection of Geographical Maps”, which includes maps of ten Spanish regions. It includes the name of the town of Banyeres as "Banneres".

.- Hypothetical illustration of soldiers of the s. XVIII. (Particular collection; lead soldiers)

1: Portuguese Infantry Soldier; Maybe like the one that belonged to the third of Colonel D. Antonio do Couto who was in the siege of Banyeres del 14 November 1706.

2: Militia on horseback with riding sword in show hand, outfitted in period dress unlike uniform worn by the regular army, carrying pistols and carbine, This weapon is less heavy and shorter than the rifle carried by the infantryman; Could be like Pedro Corbí's horse militia; "Platoon of the King's Cavalry" (Miñana L.II-32), and who was in the confrontation of 10 of November in “the terroirs”.

3: British grenadier, belonging to the army of the allied front. It held in early March 1707 part of the Hoya de Castalla (Castalla and Onil).

4: Cavalry soldier of the Blesois Regiment; Perhaps like those who were garrisoned in the castle of Banyeres from 15 of November, as well as those who defended the castle of Villena.

5: Valencia Tercio Drum (General Council of the Kingdom of Valencia); Possibly like the one who went to El Bovar, early July 1076, which will be discussed in the next edition. The armies of the s. XVIII were formed by the recruitment of people for the troops (Takes). The severe discipline, low pay and harsh conditions only attracted peasants, poor and criminal. The officers, Conversely, they were mostly noble, who resorted to all kinds of influence in order to secure appointments, being obliged to attend the King's call.